# Example using the Xpress Python interface
#
# Sudoku: place numbers from 1 to 9 into a 9x9 grid such that no
# number repeats in any row, in any column, and in any 3x3 sub-grid.
#
# More generally, replace 3 with q and 9 with q^2
#
# (C) Fair Isaac Corp., 1983-2024
from __future__ import print_function
import xpress as xp
# We model this problem as an assignment problem where certain
# conditions must be met for all numbers in the columns, rows, and
# sub-grids.
#
# These subgrids are lists of tuples with the coordinates of each
# subgrid. In a 9x9 sudoku, for instance, subgrids[0,1] has the 9
# elements in the top square, i.e., the following:
#
# ___ ___ ___
# | |###| |
# | |###| |
# |___|###|___|
# | | | |
# | | | |
# |___|___|___|
# | | | |
# | | | |
# |___|___|___|
#
# while subgrids[2,2] has the 9 elements in the bottom right square.
# The input is a starting grid where the unknown numbers are replaced by zero
q = 3
starting_grid = \
[[8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 7, 0, 0, 9, 0, 2, 0, 0],
[0, 5, 0, 0, 0, 7, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 3, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 6, 8],
[0, 0, 8, 5, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0],
[0, 9, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0]]
# Solve a 16x16 sudoku: Just uncomment the following lines.
#
# q = 4
#
# starting_grid = \
# [[ 0, 0,12, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 7, 3, 0,13,15, 0, 0],
# [15, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 0, 0, 9, 0, 0, 0,12, 0, 0,10],
# [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 9, 0, 6, 0, 0, 0,12, 0, 0, 0, 2, 5],
# [ 6,11, 1, 0, 0,10, 5, 0, 0, 2, 0,15, 0, 0, 0, 0],
# [ 4, 6, 3, 0, 0, 0,13,14, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 7, 0, 0],
# [ 0,15,11, 0, 7, 0, 9, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0],
# [ 0, 1, 0,10,15, 0, 0, 0,11, 3,14, 0, 6, 0, 0, 0],
# [13, 0, 8, 7, 0, 5, 0, 0, 0, 1, 9,12, 0, 0, 0, 0],
# [ 0, 0, 0, 6, 3, 7,15, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,14, 0, 0],
# [ 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,11, 7, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0],
# [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,13, 0, 0, 6, 9, 0, 3, 0],
# [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 8,14, 0, 3, 0, 0,10, 0, 0,13, 7],
# [ 0, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 7,10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 5, 1],
# [ 0, 4,10, 1, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0,12, 0,14, 7, 3, 9,15],
# [ 3, 0,15, 0, 0, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0, 1, 0,14,12, 0, 0],
# [ 2, 0, 0, 9,12, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 6, 8, 0]]
n = q**2 # the size must be the square of the size of the subgrids
N = range(n)
p = xp.problem()
x = p.addVariables(N, N, N, vartype=xp.binary)
# define all q^2 subgrids
subgrids = {(h, l): [(i, j) for i in range(q*h, q*h + q)
for j in range(q*l, q*l + q)]
for h in range(q)
for l in range(q)}
vertical = [xp.Sum(x[i, j, k] for i in N) == 1 for j in N for k in N]
horizontal = [xp.Sum(x[i, j, k] for j in N) == 1 for i in N for k in N]
subgrid = [xp.Sum(x[i, j, k] for (i, j) in subgrids[h, l]) == 1
for (h, l) in subgrids.keys() for k in N]
# Assign exactly one number to each cell
assign = [xp.Sum(x[i, j, k] for k in N) == 1 for i in N for j in N]
# Fix those variables that are non-zero in the input grid
init = [x[i, j, k] == 1 for k in N for i in N for j in N
if starting_grid[i][j] == k+1]
p.addConstraint(vertical, horizontal, subgrid, assign, init)
# we don't need an objective function, as long as a solution is found
p.optimize()
print('Solution:')
for i in N:
for j in N:
l = [k for k in N if p.getSolution(x[i, j, k]) >= 0.5]
assert(len(l) == 1)
print('{0:2d}'.format(1 + l[0]), end='', sep='')
print('')